The Pelargonium is widespread in room culture. It comes from Southern Africa. These are rather unpretentious grassy or bush-kind plants which blossoming since spring till autumn and even the winter, therefore them still name “blossoming Geraniums”. All kinds Pelargonium which grow up in the house, are united by one name – a room geranium. A room geranium has close wild relatives which are an ordinary geranium which grows as a weed on kitchen gardens and roadsides and a meadow geranium, growing on glades in a wood, meadows and on the slopes of mountains.
KINDS of Pelargonium
In room floriculture zone Pelargonium is quite widespread (before it was called in russian klatch). On its leaves the Zone Pelargonium has dark concentric circles transitive colors which divide a leaf into zones, as has formed the background for the name of this kind. The flowers are bright, simple and double, of white, pink, crimson and red colors, usually they are collected in a spherical figure resembling an umbrella.
This plant usually grows up to 30 – 60 cm in height, but some species happen to grow up to 1 meter. The zone pelargonium has strong thick stalks and dense leaves which have a strong smell. The geranium red, especially grown up from seeds of hybrid grades of the first generation (F1) is very beautiful: these are pelargonium RED ELITE, RINGO DEEP SCARLET, CHEERIO SCARLET, SPRINTER. Series of pelargonium grown up of seeds are offered in catalogues, these are “Multicet” – scarlet, pink, salmon, series, “The LUSTER”, “BLACK VELVET”, and others.
The royal pelargonium (a royal geranium) is a very impressive plant, it possesses rough jagged leaves. It has larger flowers, than at zone pelargonium, therefore has a name of a large flower pelargonium. Its flowers have wavy edges, brighter coloring and diameter of 4 – 6 cm.
It has rather short flowering – from the beginning of spring up to the middle of summer and that is a strong disadvantage of this sort. The plant can grow up to 30-60 cm height. Lot’s of grades are offered for cultivation: “EASTER GREETINGS”, “AZTEC”, “GRAND SLAM”, “GRANDMA FISHER”, “ELSIE”, “HICKMAN”, etc.
The thyroid pelargonium is a pelargonium hybrid and has thin hanging down runaways, (up to one meter in length), that allows to grow up it as ampel plant.It has ivylike, juicy leaves of bright-green color sometimes with beautiful white border on edges.
It has both not double, and double flowers with a color from white, gentle-pink, salmon, and up to bright-lilac. Lately at is very popular thanks to its full long flowering, a plenty beautiful, bright leaves and simple seaving. It can be grown up and as stamb tree.
A fragrant geranium is a grassy plant, with a lot of branches and leaves. It has fine leaves with a strong smell. Often this smell resembles a lemon, but there are fragrant geraniums with a smell of a rose, mint or nutmeg and even with a smell of an apple and an orange. The flowers of this kind of a geranium are fine, pink or lilac, collected in umbrellas. This plant is usually chosen not for its colors, but because of odorous leaves. They can be used instead of fragrant leaves in any fragrant small pillows and as spices.
All pelargonium duplicate by stem shanks practically all year long but better in the spring, or by seeds which also are better for sowing in the spring. Shanks should be cut off from lateral and top runaways. The length of a shank should be 5-7 cm and have 2-3 leaves.
Before planting the shank is better to dry up a little bit for few hours and then they should be powdered and cut with a pounded wood coal. It can be planted directly in a constant pot which should be of a small sizes otherwise the flowering could be weak. The soil can be a usual garden one with addition of sand or not a sour purchased ground. It is also possible to implant shanks in coarse-grained sand with the following replanting in a constant place in pots or containers.
The soil for planting should be slightly damp, instead of wet and after it should be watering cautiously in edge of a pot, trying to not get on a stalk and leaves as shanks easily catch rot, especially at a low temperature. The best temperature for rooting of shanks is 20-22 degrees. It is unnecessary neither to cover shanks with glass banks or polyethylene packages it is not necessary, nor to use and fithohormons.
One of the most unpretentious plants is a geranium. Care of them does not demand any significant efforts. The basic rules are moderated watering, during the winter period the ground should be practically dry, and in the rest of the time it is necessary to water the soil is dry. It is not necessary to spray it. These flowers are exacting to illumination. They prefer a sunlight. Only in the hottest days they should be slightly cover from the sun.
The young runaways should be fixed when there are 4-5 pairs of leaves. It should be done for increase of runaways’ quantity and better flowering. The plants are usually cut round in autumn, with some bottom leaves left (not less than two). The cut off branches can be implanted. If while winter period it strongly extend, the plant should be cut off in the spring, excepting the large flower, royal pelargonium.
They usually blossom in the second year after planting and the ones not cut off blossom more plentifully, than when they are. The blossomed flowers and turned yellow leaves must be deleted. Thus leaves are better for cutting off, instead of breaking off, to not cause rotting of a stalk. The best temperature for a pelargonium dormant period which comes in winter is 10-15 degrees at minimal watering.
The Pelargonium do not like replacing. They can be replaced only if the pot became obviously too small.
Use the potash fertilizers for the geraniums. If it is ready flower fertilizer, it is necessary to watch that in it there was a small quantity of nitrogen. Otherwise there will be a lot of foliage and few blossom.
ILLNESSES And WRECKERS.
The basic troubles at cultivation pelargonium are concerned with too humid ground, especially while low temperatures. Thus the leaves are languid, there can arise aqueous small pillows and rusty spots, on them, sometimes there is a grey mould on leaves which is caused by a fungus. In all these cases it is necessary to remove sick leaves, and to process a plant with fungispher, to reduce watering and to give fresh air an access to a plant.
The shanks’ the basis can darken – that is black decay of a basis. Such plant should be thrown out, the ground – sterilized or replaced and henceforth to not fill in a plant with water. The pelargonium is steady enough against wreckers, but sometimes it is also stroked with ticks, a plant louse, puctivetrisand Aleyrodidae. Ticks, puctivetris, grey decay is destroyed by fungicides, and a plant louse and Aleyrodidae are afraid permit containing preparations. Ticks can be destroyed, washing leaves (especially carefully from the bottom party) with tobacco mixture or a chemist’s camomile with green soap. In 2-3 hours the leaves should be washed with water once again.
It is especially difficult to struggle with Aleyrodidae. In this case processing of a plant is necessary to be performed once to three days. All sprayings should be made outside of premises.