In 50s-60s the ficus was one of the most common room plants. Later its popularity decreased. Now it interests a lot. The motherland of ficus are the tropics of Asia. In natural condition the plant of ficus includes nearly 1000 kinds. They belong to the family of mulberry. If damage a ficus allocate milky juice. Using some sorts of the juice it can be produced rubber. All ficuses, except relish, are evergreen. The relish is
throws foliage, it also provides with delicious and extremely useful fruits.
The flower of ficus (sykony) is very interesting, it resembles a pee or burry. Theirs leaves are considered to clean an air in locations so they do not only please esthetically but do a considerable good.
SPECIES OF FICUSES
The rubber ficus plant or the ficus elastica is the best known in room planting. It has a straight stem, which in the first years is not prone to branching. The leaf of ficus tree is more than 30 cm long, leathered, brilliant brightly green outwardly, and dull intrinsically. Providing you’ve bought larger plant, you can try to cut it and grow ficus bonsai tree. The most widespread types of this sort’s variety are decora and robust. These ficuses quickly grow, throwing up a leaf after a leaf, herewith the old leaves are not falling off. There are also bright-leaf forms of these species – veriegata and elastika tricolor. These ficuses are more demanding to an illumination.
From versions of this kind the room ficus of a decor and a ficus robusta coffee are most widespread. These ficuses quickly grow, throwing out on a top a leaf behind a leaf, thus old leaves are not falling. Is and bright-leaf forms of this kind, a rust-leafed ficus (veriegata), a ficus tricolored (elastika trikolor).
These ficuses are more demanding to illumination. Ficuses are also separated on their color and the form of the leaves.
The ficus Black Prince is similar to a coffee ficus robusta, except for its almost black leaves; the tricolor has a pinkish shade of the leaves, and rust-leafed – creamy.
All these ficuses have an oval form of a leaf, but the leaves of a lira-kind ficus resemble a violin, and a triangular ficus has the leaves of the triangular form, (sykonies of this ficus are yellow peas which grow on a trunk and branches), the leaf of a sacred ficus is similar to heart. Ficus Benjamina (sometimes incorrectly name ficus Benjamin, ficus Benjamini) is very popular among flower growers as well as a ficus Carica (also named as The Common Fig) among gardeners. Grows as a little ficus tree, its trunks can be bound a plat, the crone can be cut, giving to a plant the desirable form.
The size of the leaves at this ficus is narrow up to 10 see in the length, the ends are sharpened. To versions of this kind concern ficus Hawaii, variegate, Starlight and a ficus Natasha (Natasha) which now very often we meet in our shops. Another very interesting kind is a ficus Microcarpa (also known as the ficus retusa, ficus nitida, “Banyan Fig”, Taiwan Ficus, Ginseng Ficus, or “Indian Laurel Fig”), having fine, rigid leaves and strong branches. It is well with a scrap that allows its use for cultivation of ficus bonsais. There also exist ampel kinds of ficuses with fine, thin leaves and hanging down runaways. The creeping ficus is well-known for already a long time, among modern kinds they are dwarfish ficus (Pumila, Sunny) and a taking-roots ficus (Radicans, Sagitata). Ficus Pumila is more likely a ground covering a plant, than ampel. It prefers very humid air. Another popular kind of ficus is ficus lyrata, also known widely as the fiddle-leaf fig . It grows natively at tropical rainforests in Sierra-Leona and Camerun.
The Sacred Fig (Ficus religiosa) also known as the Bo-Tree is a type of banyan ficus native to India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. Ficus Alii is another one beautiful plant that can fit your interior design perfectly.
Different kinds of ficuses need difference in leaving, but there general rules exist. All ficuses are thermophilic. In the winter the temperature should not fall below 10 degrees. All ficuses do not love drafts. As to an illumination- different ficuses have different requirements.
The treelike ficuses grow well in a half-shade. Only in the early morning the sun doesn’t harm them, but they hardly stand hot afternoon solar light, and as to ampel ficuses and Microcarp ficus is not likely to be in direct solar beams, they require a half-shade. All ficuses should be placed far from batteries of a central heating. The one should water plants cautiously. There is no need to humidify ground strongly, but not preferably to let earthen lumps become dry. All ficuses like sprayings, especially amel which should be sprayed constantly. It is also necessary to water them more often.
The brilliant bigger leaves of rubber-bearing ficuses are better to wipe with a damp duster to remove the traces of water drops. It is forbidden to use cold water from the crane for the watering. It is only possible to use that sort of water for a ficus. Ficus care includes also its top dressing. Since the spring and up to the autumn ficuses do quickly grow.
At this time it is necessary to feed them up 2 times a month. Can be used ready fertilizers approach or they can be made with own hands: on 1 l. of water 0,4 gr. ammoniac saltpeter, 0,1 gr potash salt, 0,5 gr superphosphate. The most suitable ground should be a mix equal proportions of the turfen, peat ground and sand in, with a drainage. And after such preparing of the pot, you can put your ficus there. There is no need in a change more often, than time in two years. It is better to replace plants in the spring prior to the beginning of active growth. When plants becomes bidder, the one should replace it even less often.
DUPLICATION of FICUSES
Ficuses duplicate by top shanks with leaves or pieces of a stalk with one leaf. If the one put such shank in a jar with water on a solar window and water is to be often changed, after a while there will appear root-lets. The one can obtain the duplication of ficuses in another way: shanks implant in crude sand. In this case a shank wash from lacteal juice which is allocated from a place of a cut, allow it to dry a little and put it in a small pot with damp sand which will be put in a warm place, even better in hot-house. If the ficus has lost foliage, and leaves have remained only on a top, it can be updated, having resorted to duplication air conductors. In this case do a circular cut or remove a narrow strip of a bark under conductor and to this place attach a moss with which constantly humidify. In 1-2 months around of a cut roots will develop. A shank together with roots the one should cut off and put in a pot. The best time for duplication of ficuses is Summer.
ILLNESS of FICUSES
Ficuses are steady enough against illnesses and wreckers. If you will follow key rules of leaving, water a ficus correctly, all illnesses will certainly bypass it. So, if the ficus has suddenly begun to lose foliage, the reason of it can be the excessive humidifying of the ground or strong drying earthen lump, cold drafts or lack of light. If the treelike ficus gradually loses bottom leaves it is natural process and there is no reason to worry. If ample and sectional ficus trees have dry and wrinkled leaves it could be all about insufficient humidity of air and drying of ground. It is necessary to spray the plant more often and to water it correctly. The same symptoms can be because of a solar burn. In this case it is necessary to find more suitable place for a plant, where there are no direct solar beams. If on the bottom party of leaves the are small spiders – these are web pincers.
They duplicate quickly in dry air and at a heat. It is destroyed with a careful cleaning, especially bottom part, leaves weak mixture of a tobacco dust (4 table spoons on 1 litre of water) in which add soap or mixture of dalmath camomiles with soap. In two hours wash the leaves in a warm water. If on the leaves there were points and spots, it can be a panelboard plant louse. This wrecker is destroyed also with soap-tobacco mixture to which it is good to add a little denatured spirit or kerosene. Thus it is necessary to examine carefully a plant and a to clean all shields and stalks of the leaves with wadded tampon. The clean leaves are the main protection of ficuses against illnesses and wreckers.